Ice Polar Scuba Diving In Arctic Antarctic Antarctica
Expeditions Cruises Travel Guide Southern Ocean Drake
"The longing for the ice, the sadness of departure…it is as if I cannot after all bear to leave this bleak waste of ice, glaciers, cold and toil." – Ernest Shackleton
Our first expedition took place on February 16, 2003 and was probably the most exciting and demanding expedition we have ever undertaken. It was our first plunge into the icy waters of Antarctica. For 12 days, we explored the wilderness of the Antarctic Peninsula, photographing the wildlife and spectacular ice formations both above and below these polar waters.
We journeyed south to the frozen continent again on February 16, 2005, making this our second expedition to Antarctica. This time our adventure has taken us through the Antarctic Circle. Our expedition was again hosted by Aurora Expeditions, an efficient and professional operator for this type of demanding trip. The comfortable and sturdy Polar Pioneer was of course our base of operations for this excursion as well. On this voyage we had the best of both worlds -- we sampled the diversity of wildlife encountered only on the Peninsula, we once again took the plunge into the icy waters of Antarctica, yet traveled far enough south to cross the Antarctic Circle.
Crossing the Antarctic Circle took us through spectacular passages into the Crystal Sound region, which revealed major changes in the continent's land, its ice formations, and also in the distribution and abundance of wildlife. By the end of the voyage when all you can do is gaze out from the protected confines of the ships bridge, you begin to reflect on what you have seen and experienced in the last 12 days. You soon realize that unless you cross the Antarctic Circle, you may not gain the rare understanding of how life exists at these southerly latitudes.
So what makes the Antarctic Circle so interesting. Well, it's one of the five major circles of latitude that circle around our planet. The other circles of latitude include the Arctic Circle, the Equator, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. So what is a circle of latitude, well quoted from Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia:
"a circle of latitude is an imaginary circle around the Earth made up of all the points that have the same particular value for their latitude. These are based on the rotation of the Earth in relationship to the Sun."
That definition may not really help, but everything south of this circle is known as the Antarctic Zone, and the zone to the north is considered the Southern Temperate Zone (extends from the Tropic of Capricorn at about 23.5 degrees south latitude to the Antarctic Circle). The Antarctic Circle has a parallel latitude that runs approximately 66° 33' south of the Equator. Within this zone, the Sun is above the horizon for at least 24 continuous hours per year in conjunction with the Summer Solstice and at least 24 continuous hours below the horizon in conjunction with the Antarctic Winter Solstice.
We are often asked what compels us to want to see Antarctica. The answer is simple, Antarctica is nature in its purest state; her power and beauty are at once humbling and exhilarating. Indeed Antarctica touches the soul like no other place on earth. The pace can be as fast as an ice wall cracking and tumbling into the sea or as slow as an advancing glacier.
Perhaps the following question, posed in 1908 by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charcot captures the essence of the mystery of Antarctica even to this day:
"Where does the strange attraction to the polar regions lie, so powerful, so gripping that on one’s return from them one forgets all weariness of body and soul and dreams only of going back?"
The port city of Ushuaia, sometimes referred to as the City at the End of the World was our departure city for both expeditions. From there, adventurers will journey south to the frozen continent of Antarctica. Our 2003 expedition took us across the Drake Passage towards the Antarctic in relatively calm waters. But we weren't so lucky on our return trip in 2005. This time we were greeted with stormy, 25-30 foot seas. Both ways!! Who knows what awaits us next time? Only time will tell…
For the most part the days will be routine, filled with lectures, deck-top views of the spectacular Antarctic scenery, and forays ashore to view wildlife or points of scientific or historical interest. Meals are hearty and are prepared by European or Australian chefs who are wizards at their craft. Zodiacs are used not only as landing craft but also to take passengers closer to icebergs and wildlife.
Expert polar naturalists always company expeditioners on shore as well as sharing their knowledge through lectures, videos and seminars on board the ship. Cruising life aboard the Polar Pioneer is a relaxed one, punctuated by exciting views and excursions. These are expedition-style journeys which benefit from flexibility among staff and passengers alike. In Antarctica you can sometimes end up one hundred miles from where you were expected, due to a last minute change of plan. Aurora Expeditions takes pride in their years of experience in Antarctica so they can guarantee that all expeditioners will gain the best possible value and experience from every day.
So join us as we explore deeper in to the Ice Kingdom of Antarctica..
Antarctic Diving Schedule - Reservations are required to reserve your spot on all expeditions. Please contact us by using our online form to see if your requested date is available. Due to unforeseen circumstances, dates can change without notice, please verify your trip selection before making any airfare or accommodation arrangements. Referrer: Eco-Photo Explorers - Click here to book your next trip...
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When we explore the Antarctic, our choice is always with Aurora Expeditions and its usually aboard the sturdy Polar Pioneer. This vessel was constructed in 1983 in Finland as an ice strengthened research vessel and she spent many of her early years navigating the dangerous waters of the northern coast of the former Soviet Republic. The Polar Pioneer measures 71.6 meters in length, with a 12.8-meter beam and a 4.5-meter draft. She can reach 12 knots at top speed and her registry continues to be Russian. In 2000 she was refurbished in St. Petersburg to provide comfortable accommodation for 54 passengers.
A combined bar/lounge/library area (stocked with a good collection of polar books) was also created by simple internal restructuring. During our journey, she will operate as our home base. Each day, zodiacs will depart from the Polar Pioneer, taking us to dive spots, icebergs and landings on the continent itself. After hours spent photographing and exploring the wilderness, the Polar Pioneer will provide a warm, comfortable haven where we can eat, gain much needed rest and re-charge our internal batteries.
Expedition Ship - Polar Pioneer
Type of vessel:
Bar, Lounge, Library
This class of vessel has a fine reputation for polar expedition cruising, due to its strength, maneuverability and small number of cabins. All cabins have outside portholes plus ample storage space. The Russian captain and crew are among the most experienced ice navigators in the world and their enthusiasm is legendary. The spacious bridge is always open to us and the decks are ideal for viewing.
The chefs are European, and the dining room is attended by Russian stewardesses. Polar Pioneer is not a luxury vessel as such, but this is our most popular ship for travel to the Polar regions. The accommodation is simple yet comfortable, and the meals are wholesome and uncomplicated. A small fleet of inflatable Zodiacs with outboard motors enable us to travel from ship to shore.
is the Polar Pioneer?
Click here to view the satellite tracking system that shows you where the Polar Pioneer is at the present moment. You can zoom in or out to get a better perspective of her location. This GPS satellite tracking system is provided by Global Marine Networks (GMN). So what is GPS? The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation and precise-positioning tool. Developed by the Department of Defense in 1973, GPS was originally designed to assist soldiers and military vehicles, planes, and ships in accurately determining their locations world-wide. Today, the uses of GPS have extended to include both the commercial and scientific worlds. Commercially, GPS is used as a navigation and positioning tool in airplanes, boats, cars, and for almost all outdoor recreational activities such as hiking, fishing, and kayaking -- click here to view other tracked vessels.
Cabin and Facility Descriptions - Below are brief descriptions of the different type of sleeping quarters that are available as well as some of the facilities that you as future passengers may be using or visiting. Please Note: We will be adding pictures of these areas shortly, so check back soon.
- Triple Shared Cabins (300, 301) have two lower berths and one upper berth, a desk, a small washbasin, storage and hanging space and opening porthole. Showers and toilets are down the hall and shared by other passengers on Deck 3.
- Twin Shared Cabins (302-313) have two lower berths, desk, a small washbasin, storage and hanging space and opening porthole. Showers and toilets are down the hall and shared by other passengers on Deck 3.
- Twin Private Cabins (400-408, 506-507) have two lower berths, a desk, opening window, and a private washroom w/toilet, shower and washbasin. Cabins 402 & 403 have one upper & one lower berth (bunk beds).
- Mini Suites (502, 503) have a separate small bedroom with a three-quarter bed, an additional sofa-bed in the main room, a desk, video player and TV, an opening window and private bathroom with a toilet, shower and washbasin.
- The Captain's Suite (501) features a large lounge area, a separate small bedroom with a double bed, a couch bed in the main room, video player and TV, refrigerator, large forward and side facing windows, and a private bathroom with shower, toilet and washbasin.
- The Lecture Room (lower deck) on the lower deck is a comfortable room for learning more about your exciting destination from their experienced naturalists, as well containing video facilities and a well-stocked library. This area can be accessed using the staircase between room 306 and 307 on the main deck.
- The Bar and Lounge (upper deck) has a well equipped bar with comfortable bench type seating and large tables. This lounge area has a small library of books where passengers can catch up on some reading, go for a drink and share the days adventure or play chess or other available board games.
- The Gallery will usually have European chefs that will prepare all the meals you will be eating, while the two dining rooms will be attended by Russian stewardesses. There is two dinning rooms, one on each side of the gallery.
- The Bridge is spacious and is always open to passengers during their stay. All Passengers are encouraged to talk with the Russian crew to learn about the ship as well as ask questions about their voyage. The bridge with its large windows is ideal for viewing the beautiful scenery during harsh weather conditions. Don't miss an opportunity to visit the bridge at night! At night, this is one of the most peaceful and tranquil places on the entire ship.
- The Engine Room is a wonderful place to visit if time
permits. Lucky passengers maybe able to get a chanced to see
what make this ship operate. See the large engines, the
propeller shift, the engineer's room as well as a small machine
shop. Since the engine room can be dangerous, only small groups
are permitted at a time and hearing protection is a MUST!
Fascinating experiences in the world of ice - glaciers, gigantic icebergs and spectacular ice walls - characterize a scuba diving voyage to Antarctica. Seals, whales and colonies of thousands of penguins will almost overwhelm you. No two days are alike - surprises and unforgettable experiences await you.
Types of Antarctic Expedition Ships - Ships can vary from Russian icebreakers to expedition cruise ships with ice-strengthened hulls. Each are well equipped to participate in adventurous land excursions and remarkable wildlife viewing.
Ushuaia - The Polar Pioneer will depart for the Antarctic from Ushuaia, a small city at the southern tip of Argentina. Ushuaia is often referred to as The City at the End of the World because of its extreme southern location. This city stands in a sheltered bay on Isla Grande de Teirra del Fuego, which actually forms the north shore of the famous Beagle Channel. In the 1980s, this city became the administrative capital of the Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands. In 1982, it also attracted the Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas (CADIC). This is a scientific organization specializing in anthropological and biological research in the region.
Between these activities and the expansion of its airfield to accommodate larger plans, Ushuaia has captured the increasing tourist traffic for Antarctica. Many of the Antarctica travelers depart from this city and, while generally overlooked as only a “pit stop” on the way south, Ushuaia does offer some tourist activities, including excursions to the nearby islands in the Beagle Channel for bird watching. Some 200 species of seabirds breed in these areas, along with summer migrants from North America who journey south for the summer. The weather in Ushuaia is unpredictable and unreliable. A mild day can turn atrocious quickly with sudden wind and rain squalls, so hikers who venture out into the parks nearby should be warned and prepared at all times.
Diving in the Beagle Channel at Ushuaia - During your stay in Ushuaia, you may want to get an early start on your diving adventure by exploring the clear waters of the Beagle Channel at the End of the World (well, very close to it...). The diving here is beautiful and not nearly as cold as the Polar Regions south of here. Divers will be able to swim through forests of giant kelp, visit amazing shipwrecks, dive with jellyfish and king crabs, and discover many varieties of tiny colorful creatures.
The best and safest dive locations will always be chosen by the Captain based on the current weather and sea conditions. Since the winds are usually less frequent in winter, the water is calmer and clearer, but of course colder! In summer, when water temperatures rise, plankton growth increases and this lowers visibility. Water temperature in winter is about 2-4ºC (36-40ºF). In summer, it can easily reach 8-10ºC (46-50ºF). Drysuits are definitely recommended. If you need equipment, Ushuaia Divers can provide anything you need.
Most of dive sites are close to Ushuaia, and can be reached by car or boat. Diving trips typically consist of two tank dives with a surface interval of about 30-45 minutes (depending on your diving schedule), where divers get a chance to warm up while the boat moves to the second dive site. Usually, the Captain will try to visit Isla de los Lobos, and during the interval, move to Puerto Karelo, in the Bridges Islands, where the AFASyN (Tierra del Fuego Association of Underwater and Nautical Activities) has constructed a shelter. There, you will have some lunch before making the second dive. The boat will generally depart around 9am and return close to 2pm, but these dive trips can easily be customized.
If necessary, divers are able to make a shallow shore dive, to check buoyancy and adjust weight. Also, for divers that seldom or never have done drysuit diving, this is a great opportunity to learn or to refresh those forgotten skills. Below there is a list of some diving sites.
Available Dive Sites
Map Courtesy of Ushuaia Divers
ESTANCIA TUNEL (Tunel farm)
ISLA DE LOS LOBOS (Sea lions island)
ISLAS BRIDGES (Bridges islands)
PUERTO CUCHARITA (Little Spoon harbor)
ISLA REDONDA (Round island)
ISLA ESTORBO (Hindrance island)
BAHIA ENSENADA (Ensenada Bay)
Shipwrecks - Many shipwrecks can be found around the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego. Storms, strong winds and currents have littered this area with ship remains. Unfortunately, the same conditions that wrecked these ships are the same reasons that make diving them sometimes impossible. However, there are a few shipwrecks where diving is permitted, and the memories of diving them can be unforgettable.
For more information
How much does it cost? - Average trips are about 2 to 3 weeks in length from port to port, though occasionally longer or shorter trips are possible. Trips to the Antarctic Peninsula generally depart from Ushuaia in Argentina, but would be travelers can depart form other South American ports as well. Expedition ships to Antarctica can variety in sizes and comfort, and the choice of ship can make a big difference to your journey and experiences.
Antarctic visits are mainly concentrated at ice-free coastal zones over the Antarctic summer, which is a five-month period from November to March. In high summer, there will be 20+ hours of daylight and the average temperature Range during December – February is about 20ºF to 50ºF [-6ºC to +10ºC]. The cruise cost can start around US $5000.00 and can be as high as US $10,000.00 depending on the tour company you use, the length of trip and your itinerary. If you are attempting to go scuba diving, then add another US $500.00.
This cost doesn't include airfare, special clothing and equipment you may have to purchase or any additional lodging on the front and backend of your trip.
Recommended Tour Companies:
- Expeditions offered by Eco-Photo Explorers
- Aurora Expeditions
- Oceanwide Expeditions
- Lindblad Expeditions
- Quark Expeditions
- Waterproof Expeditions
- Types of Antarctic Expedition Ships
The U.S. Embassy is located at
4300 Avenida Colombia,
1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina
U.S. Embassy Buenos Aires
Avenida Colombia 4300
C1425GMN Buenos Aires, Argentina
Embassy Switchboard: 011-54-11-5777-4533
American Citizen Emergency: 54-11-4514-1830
Marine Wildlife Watching Guidelines
(Whales & Dolphins, Seals and Seabirds)
For Vessel & Zodiac Operations - The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) has developed the following Wildlife Watching Guidelines to provide guidance to vessel operators while viewing cetaceans, seals, and birds in their marine environment.
Wildlife Watching Guidelines (PDF) | General Visiting Guidelines
Published Articles & Images
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Protecting the Antarctic Environment - Aurora Expeditions is proud to be the first Australian member of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAAT0). Although the Association deals with all aspects of Antarctic tourism, most important from Aurora Expeditions' point of view is the fact that responsible environmental policies are a key part of IAATO's charter. Antarctic tourism is such a recent phenomenon that IAATO has been able to avoid the mistakes made in other parts of the world by instigating an appropriate environmental code from the outset. All of our expeditioners are briefed not only on codes of conduct but also on the scientific reasons for these guidelines. Expeditioners learn how to enjoy wildlife encounters without being intrusive, and hence get the most out of their visits to Antarctica.
Population of Antarctica - There are no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and summer-only staffed research stations.
Note: 26 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters of the treaty region. More...
Protecting the Antarctic - Tours to the southern continent have doubled and redoubled in less than a decade. Is this jump in tourism hurting Antarctica, or helping it?
Image Courtesy: IAATO
- Tourism Statistics (IAATO)
- Antarctic Heritage Trust
- Antarctica: Is Rise in Tourism Helping or Hurting the Continent?
- Calls for regulation of rising Antarctica tourism
- International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO)
Cruise Ships at Risk in the Antarctic?
- February 2003 - The Marco Polo (Norwegian Cruises) ran aground in Half moon Island, Antarctica causing hull damage and was able to sail back to Ushuaia, Argentina.
- January 2004 - The luxury cruise ship Marco Polo struck ice while sailing in to Hope Bay Antarctica causing damage.
- January 2007 - The MS Nordnorge evacuated 294 passengers, including 119 Americans from a sister Norwegian cruise ship, the MS Nordkapp, which ran aground off a remote Antarctic island. The Nordkapp later pulled off the rocks under its own power and authorities said those passengers were never in danger.
- November 2007 - The red-hulled M/S Explorer (G.A.P. Adventures) became the first cruse to sink in Antarctica after striking ice. All 154 passengers and crew members were saved after scrambling to safety aboard lifeboats and rafts.
- December 2007 - Because of engine problems, the M/S Fram (Hurtigruten Cruises) drifted into an iceberg near Brown's Bluff on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula that damaged the ship –- but neither injuries nor leakages were reported.
- December 2008 - The M/V Ushuaia (Antarpply Expeditions) became the second incident of a ship running aground in Antarctica. The ship ran aground in Wilhelmina Bay, near Cape Ann. All passengers and crew members were rescued.
- February 2009 - The Antarctic cruise ship the M/V Ocean Nova (Quark Expeditions) ran aground in Marguerite Bay, near the Antarctic Peninsula, with 106 passengers and crew aboard.
These incidences help to underscore the dangers of traveling in the Antarctic.
Antarctica is the 5th biggest continent and 10% of the earth's land area. Almost all of Antarctica lies within the Antarctic Circle (66°33’ South Latitude). All points south of this imaginary line experience at least one day of 24-hour daylight during summer and one day of 24-hour darkness in the winter. Further south the periods of complete daylight and complete darkness last much longer (up to about 4 months each per year)
- When was Antarctica Discovered? It wasn’t discovered until 1820 and explorers didn’t reach the South Pole until 1911.
- Area: 14.2 million sq. km (5.5 million sq. miles).
- Geographic South Pole: Earth's southernmost point, at latitude 90°S, where all lines of longitude meet.
- Magnetic South Pole: The magnetic South Pole shifts about 5 miles (km) a year and is now located at about 66°S and 139°E on the Adélie Coast of Antarctica.
- Terrain: About 98% thick ice sheet and 2% barren rock; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent.
- Ice sheet: The Antarctic ice cap contains about 70% of the planet’s fresh water and the continental ice sheet contains approximately 7 million cubic miles (30 million cu km) of ice, representing about 90% of the world's total. In some places, the ice can reach 2.4 miles (4-5 km) in thickness. Ice slowly builds up over millions of years at the rate of 50 to 900 mm/year. Ice flowing off of the continent creates several floating ice shelves where the flowing ice meets the ocean. These ice shelves in turn give rise to many icebergs. If it all melted, sea levels would rise between 164-197 ft (50-60 m).
- Major Ice Shelves: Amery, Filchner, Larsen, Ronne, Ross. Ice shelves make up about 10% of Antarctica's ice, and are floating sheets of ice attached to land that project out into coastal waters.
- Climate: The coldest, windiest, driest continent. Temperatures in winter can drop below -100°F (-73°C). In fact, the world's lowest temperature -128.6°F (-89.2°C) was recorded at Russia Vostok Station in Antarctica on July 21,1983. Inland, temperatures range from -100°F (-73°C) in winter to -31°F (-35°C) in summer. Corresponding figures for coastal regions are -22°F (-30°C) to 32°F (0°C).
- Regions: East Antarctica (c. 3,000,000 sq. mi./7,770,000 sq. km), the largest portion of the continent, is a high, ice-covered plateau. West Antarctica (c. 2,500,000 sq. mi. / 6,475,000 sq. km), is an archipelago of mountainous islands connected by ice. A mountain range divides them.
- Elevation Extremes: Lowest point: Bentley Sub-glacial Trench -8,327 ft. below sea level (-2,538 m). Highest point: Vinson Massif 16,066 ft. (4,897 m), Ellsworth Mountains.
- Who Owns Antarctica? There are no countries in Antarctica, the continent is governed by an International Treaty.
- Who Lives in Antarctica? Antarctica has no true permanent residents. Fewer than 1,000 people winter over in a given year; the summer population is substantially higher as scientists and support staff from over 27 countries converge on the continent. More...
- Southernmost Active Volcano in the Word: Mt. Erebus, forms an island at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf and rises more than 3,700 meters (12,100 feet) above the surrounding Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound area. Two Antarctic research stations, Scott Base (N.Z.) and McMurdo Station (U.S.) are located on the southern tip of this volcanic island.
- Why were sled dogs removed from Antarctica? In
October 4, 1991 at a
Antarctic Treaty Consultative meeting in Madrid, the
countries with Antarctic programs decided to phase out
the use of dogs. The fear that distemper from dogs could spread
to seals and the impact they could have on wildlife if they
escaped led to a new clause in the Antarctic Treaty.
ANNEX II (full document)
PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY
CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC FAUNA AND FLORA
Article 4: Introduction of non-native species, parasites and diseases
1. No species of animal or plant not native to the Antarctic Treaty area shall be introduced onto land or ice shelves, or into water in the Antarctic Treaty area except in accordance with a permit. 2. Dogs shall not be introduced onto land or ice shelves and dogs currently in those areas shall be removed by 1 April 1994."
The contribution of these husky sled teams lasted some ninety-six years, from the first expedition (Southern Cross Expedition) in 1898 under Carsten Borgevink (Norwegian Explorer) to February 22, 1994 when the last dog team was removed from Antarctica.
- CIA: World Factbook - Antarctica
- Antarctica Facts | Clothing in Antarctica (Cool Antarctica)
Deception Island Information
The Antarctic Connection - News and Information
Polarlink (links to Arctic & Antarctic sites)
Weather: Palmer Station
Deception Island Management Group
oceanweather.com (view wave heights in the Drake Passage)
Map 1: Antarctica (full) | Map 2: Antarctica Peninsula
View Local Time
Diving Under Antarctic Ice
Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Australian Antarctic Division | Protecting Antarctica | Human Impacts in Antarctica
The Antarctic Sun Foundation
The South Atlantic and Subantarctic Islands Pages
The British Antarctic Survey (BAS)
The National Science Foundation (Polar Programs)
International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO)
Global Volcanism Program - Holocene volcano database for Volcanoes of Antarctica
Significant U.S. Science Discoveries from Antarctica
Nature: The World of Penguins
Passport to Antarctica
Wassmann Fine Arts - Antarctica Paintings
U.S. Antarctic Program - Funded by the U.S. Government's National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) supports scientific research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The USAP carries forward the Nation's goal of supporting the Antarctic Treaty, fostering cooperative research with other nations, protecting the Antarctic environment, and conserving living resources.
In search of
Antarctic memories - Antarctic Legacy Project
Researchers compiling archive on South Africans in Antarctica and surroundings - Wanted: The anecdotes, stories, slides, diaries and photos of the construction workers, scientists, mariners, joiners, engineers and doctors who have been involved in South Africa’s research bases in Antarctica and on Gough and Marion Islands since the start of the previous century.
the Albatross Campaign: The problem - Most albatrosses
and several other seabird species are heading for extinction. They
are being unintentionally drowned in large numbers by "longline"
Longlining is the single greatest threat to the world's seabirds. Much of it is carried out by "pirate" fishing boats.
Save the Albatross | Albatross Conservation | Donate: Form (pdf)
Antarctic Web Cams:
- Amundsen Scott South Pole Station - Webcam 1 | Webcam 2 | Webcam 3
- Casey - Australian Antarctic Station (time)
- Davis - Australian Antarctic Station (time)
- Mawson - Australian Antarctic Station (time)
- Macquarie - Australian Antarctic Station (time)
- Neumayer - German Antarctic Station
- Scott Base - New Zealand Antarctic Station
- Dome Concordia - Multinational European Station
- Penguin Webcam - First penguin webcam on the Antarctic continent
- Halley Research Station - British Antarctic Survey
- British Antarctic Survey Research Ship - RRS James Clark Ross
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